Basingstoke Team Parish

Sources of Evidence

What is PoTS

Bakewell S (1995) The Autonomic nervous System. Update in Anaesthesia.  5, 6:1-2

Bagai K, Song Y, Ling J.F et al ( 2011) Sleep Disturbances and Diminished Quality of Life in Postural Tachycardia Syndrome. Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine. 7, 2, 204-210

Brady PA, Low PA, Shen WK (2005) Inappropriate sinus tachycardia, Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome, and overlapping syndromes.  PACE 28: 1112-1121

Brignole M et al (2000) New classification of haemodynamics of vasovagal syncope: beyond the VASIS classification. Analysis of the pre-syncopal phase of the tilt test without and with nitroglycerin challenge. Vasovaga Syncope International Study. Europace, 2, 1, 66-76

Connor R,  Sheikh M, Grubb B (2012) Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome (POTS): Evaluation and Management.  British Journal of Medical Practitioners. 5,4, a540

Freeman R. Wieling W, Axelrod F.B et al (2011) Consensus statement on the definition of orthostatic hypotension, neurally mediated syncope and the postural tachycardia syndrome.  Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical 161: 46–48

Fu Q, Van Gundy TB , Galbreath MM et al (2010) Cardiac origins of the postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome.  Journal of the American college of Cardiology. 55: 2858-2868

Gazit Y, Nahir AM, Grahame R, Jacob G (2003) Dysautonomia in the joint hypermobility syndrome. American Journal of Medicine. 115:33-40.

Grahame R, Hakim J (2008) Hypermobility Current Opinion in Rheumatology, 20:106 – 110

Grubb B (2008) Postural tachycardia syndrome.  Circulation 117: 2814-2817

Grubb B, Kanjwal Y, Kosinski D (2006) The postural tachycardia syndrome: A concise guide to diagnosis and management.  Journal Cardiovascular Electrophysiology 17: 108-112

Hakim A, Grahame R (2003) Joint Hypermobility Best Practice & Research Clinical Rheumatology, 17,6, 989-1004

Hoad A, Spickett G, Elliott J, Newton J (2008) Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome is an under-recognized condition in chronic fatigue syndrome. Q J Med.  101, 961-965.

Jarjour I T, Jarjour L, K (2013) Low iron storage and mild anemia in postural tachycardia syndrome in adolescents.  Clin Auton Res, 23:175–179

Johnson JN, Mack KJ, Kuntz NL, Brands CK, Porter CJ, Fischer PR (2010) Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome: A clinical review.  Pediatric Neurology 4: 77-85

Joyner MJ (2011) Exercise Training in Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome: Blocking the Urge to Block ²-Receptors? Hypertension, 58: 136-137

Kanjwal K, Saeed B, Karabin B, Kanjwal Y, Grubb B (2011a) Clinical presentation and management of patients with hyperadrenergic postural orthostatic  tachycardia syndrome. A single centre experience.  Cardiology Journal 18: 1-5

Kanjwal K, Shiekh M, Karabin B,et al. (2011b) Neurocardiogenic syncope coexisting with postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome in patients suffering from orthostatic intolerance: a combined form of autonomic dysfunction. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol 34,5: 549–554.

Kanjwal K, Saeed B, Karabin B, Kanjwal Y, Grubb B (2010) Comparative clinical profile of postural orthostatic tachycardia patients with and without joint hypermobility syndrome. Indian Pacing and Electrophysiology Journal. 10: 173-178

Kanjwal K, Karabin B, Kanjwal Y, Grubb B (2010) Autonomic Dysfunction Presenting as Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis. Int. J. Med. Sci., 7

Kanjwal K, Karabin B, Kanjwal Y, Grubb B (2011) Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome following Lyme disease.  Cardiology Journal, 18, 1–x

Kavi L, Gammage M.D, Grubb B.P, Karabin B.L (2012) Postural tachycardia syndrome: multiple symptoms, but easily missed. The British Journal of General Practice, 62,599, 286-7

Khurana RK,Eisenberg L (2011)Orthostatic and non-orthostatic headache in postural tachycardia syndrome. Cephalalgia,  31, 4, 409-15

Low PA, Sandroni P, Joyner M, Shen W (2009) Postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS).  Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology. 20: 352-358

Mathias C J, Low DA, Iodice V, Owens AP, Kirbis M, Grahame R (2012) Postural tachycardia syndrome – current experience and concepts.  Nature Reviews Neurology 8: 22-34

Moya A, Sutton R, Ammirati F et al (2009) Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of syncope. European Heart Journal 30, 2631–2671

Nwazue V.C. et al (2014)Postural Tachycardia Syndrome and Inappropriate Sinus Tachycardia: Role of Autonomic Modulation and Sinus Node Automaticity. Journal of the  American Heart Assoc.3 doi: 10.1161/JAHA.113.000700

Okamoto LE et al (2012) Neurohumoral and haemodynamic profile in postural tachycardia and chronic fatigue syndromes. Clinical science 122,4:183-92

Plash WB, et al (2013) Diagnosing Postural Tachycardia Syndrome: Comparison of Tilt Test versus Standing Hemodynamics. Clinical Science 124, 2:109-14

Raj SR (2006) The postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS): Pathophysiology, Diagnosis & Management.  Indian Pacing and Electrophysiology Journal 6: 84-9

Raj S (2013) Postural Tachycardia Syndrome (POTS). Circulation,127:2336-2342

Raj V et al (2009) Psychiatric Profile and Attention Deficits in the Postural Tachycardia Syndrome  Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry 80:3 338-344

Schofield JR et al (2014) Postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS) and other autonomic disorders in antiphospholipid (Hughes) syndrome (APS) Lupus  23, 697–702

Soliman et al (2010) Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS): a diagnostic dilemma. British Journal of Cardiology, 17(1): 36–39.

Shannon JR, Flattem NL, Jordan J et al (2000) Orthostatic intolerance and tachycardia associated with norepinephrine-transporter deficiency. New England Journal of medicine. 342, 541-549

Shibao C, Arzubiaga C, Jackson Roberts L et al ( 2005) Hyperadrenergic postural tachycardia syndrome in mast cell activation disorders.  Hypertension  45:385-390

Thieben M, Sandroni P, Sletten, D et al (2007) Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome: The Mayo clinic experience.  Mayo Clinic Proceedings 82: 308-313

Zarate, N et al (2010) Unexplained gastrointestinal symptoms and joint hypermobility: is connective tissue the missing link? Neurogastroenterology and motility : the official journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society, 22,3, 252-e78

Zhang Q et al (2012) Twenty-Four-Hour Urinary Sodium Excretion and Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome. J Pediatr 161:281-4


Living with PoTS

Abed H, Ball P, Wang L (2012) Diagnosis and management of postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome: A brief review. Journal of Geriatric Cardiology, 9: 61−67

Bagai K, Song Y, Ling J.F et al ( 2011) Sleep Disturbances and Diminished Quality of Life in Postural Tachycardia Syndrome. Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine. 7, 2, 204-210

Benarroch EE (2012) Postural Tachycardia Syndrome: A Heterogeneous and Multifactorial Disorder.  Mayo Clinic Proceedings. 87,1214-25

Benrud-Larson et al (2002) Quality of Life in Patients with Postural Tachycardia syndrome.  Mayo Clinic Proceedings 77, pp 531-537

Connor R,  Sheikh M, Grubb B (2012) Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome (POTS): Evaluation and Management.  British Journal of Medical Practitioners. 5,4, a540

Electronic Medicines Compendium(2013) Nytol.  Last updated  Jan 2013.
http://www.medicines.org.uk/emc/medicine/19778/SPC/Nytol+One-A-Night/

Electronic Medicines Compendium(20103)Slow Sodium.  Last updated July 2015
http://www.medicines.org.uk/emc/medicine/813

Figueroa J et al (May 2010) preventing and treating orthostatic hypotension: as easy as A,B,C Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine, 77, 5, 298-306

Fu et al (2010) Cardiac Origins of the Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome.  Journal of the American college of Cardiology, 55, (25), pp 2858- 2868

Fu Q, VanGundy T.B Shibata S, Auchus R.J, Williams G.H, Levine B.D (2011) Exercise Training Versus Propranolol in the treatment of the Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome.  Hypertension. 58, 167-171

Grubb et al (2001) Review: The Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia syndrome: current concepts in pathophysiology Diagnosis and Management.  Journal of Interventional cardiac Electrophysiology, 5, pp 9-16

Kanjwal K, Shiekh M, Karabin B,et al. (2011) Neurocardiogenic syncope coexisting with postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome in patients suffering from orthostatic intolerance: a combined form of autonomic dysfunction. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol 34,5: 549–554. 

Low P.A, Sandroni P, Joyner M, Shen W-K (2009) Postural Tachycardia Syndrome (POTS). Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology, 20, (3), pp 352- 358

Mathias C J, Low DA, Iodice V, Owens AP, Kirbis M, Grahame R (2011) Postural tachycardia syndrome – current experience and concepts.  Nature Reviews Neurology 8: 22-34

Miglis M, Muppidi S, Jaradeh S (2015) Sleep Disorders in Patients with Postural Tachycardia Syndrome,  Neurology (P1. 279)

Moya A, Sutton R, Ammirati F et al (2009) Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of syncope. European Heart Journal 30, 2631–2671

Parsaik A, Allison TG, Singer W, Sletten DM, Joyner MJ, Benarroch EE, Low PA, Sandroni P. (2012) Deconditioning in patients with orthostatic intolerance.    Mayo clinic. Neurology 19

Ramakrishnan K, Scheid DC (2007) Treatment options for insomnia. Am Fam Physician.  15;76(4):517-26.

Raj S (2013) Postural Tachycardia Syndrome (POTS). Circulation,127:2336-2342

Raj SR (2006) The postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS): Pathophysiology, Diagnosis & Management.  Indian Pacing and Electrophysiology Journal 6: 84-9

Shannon JR,Diedrich A, Biaggioni I, Tank J, Robertson RM, Robertson
D, Jordan J (2002): Water drinking as a treatment for orthostatic syndromes. Am J Med,112:355-360.

Sheldon et al (2015)  Heart Rhythm Society Expert Consensus Statement on the Diagnosis and Treatment of Postural Tachycardia Syndrome, Inappropriate Sinus Tachycardia, and Vasovagal Syncope. FULL TEXT

Stewart JM, Medow MS, Glover JL, Montgomery LD (2006) Persistent splanchnic hyperemia during upright tilt in postural tachycardia syndrome. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol  290:665–673

Thieben M, Sandroni P, Sletten D et al (2007) Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome: The Mayo Clinic Experience.  Mayo Clinic Proceedings.  82, 3, 308-313

Winker R et al (2005) Endurance exercise training in orthostatic intolerance: a randomized, controlled trial.  Hypertension, 45, pp 391-398


Pregnancy

Blitshteyn S, Poya H, Bett GC (2012) Pregnancy in postural tachycardia syndrome: clinical course and maternal and fetal outcomes. Journal of Maternal-Fetal & Neonatal Medicine,25,9,1631-4 

Glatter KA et al (2005) pregnancy in Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome. Pacing Clinical Electrophysiology, 28: 591-3

Kanjwal K, Karabin B, Kanjwal Y, Grubb B (2009) Outcomes of pregnancy in patients with postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome.  PACE, 32:1000-1003

Kimpinski K, Iodice V, Sandroni P, Low P.A ( 2010) Effect of pregnancy on Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome.  Mayo Clinic Proceedings. 85, 7, 639-644

NICE (2008, modified 2010) Antenatal Care. National Institute of Clinical Excellence Clinical Guidline 62. https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/CG62

Poweless CA, Harms RW, Watson WJ (2009) Postural tachycardia syndrome complicating pregnancy.  The Journal of Maternal-Fetal and Neonatal Medicine, 23(8): 850–853

Thieben MJ, Sandroni P, Sletten DM et al (2007) Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome: The Mayo clinic experience. Mayo Clin Proc 82: 308–13

Yates LM, Thomas SHL, (2012)  Prescribing medicines in pregnancy, Medicine 40;7 386-390

 


Midodrine

Doyle J.F, Grocott-Mason R, Hardman T.C, Malik O, Dubrey S,W (2012) Midodrine: use and current status in the treatment of hypotension.  British Journal of Cardiology 19:34–7  

Mathias C J, Low DA, Iodice V, Owens AP, Kirbis M, Grahame R (2012) Postural tachycardia syndrome – current experience and concepts.  Nature Reviews Neurology 8: 22-34

NICE (2015) Orthostatic hypotension due to autonomic dysfunction: midodrine.  Evidence Summary,National Institute for Health and Care Excellence.Published Oct 2015 https://www.nice.org.uk/advice/esnm61/chapter/Key-points-from-the-evidence

MRHA summary of product characteristics http://www.mhra.gov.uk/spc-pil/?subsName=MIDODRINE%20HYDROCHLORIDE&pageID=SecondLevel

Ross A.J, Ocon A.J, Medow M.S, Stewart J.M (2014) A double-blind placebo-controlled cross-over study of the vascular effects of midodrine in neuropathic compared with hyperadrenergic postural tachycardia syndrome. Clin Sci (Lond), 126, 4, 289-96


Living with low blood pressure

Tolulope A. et al (2011) Redefining Hypotension in the Elderly. Normotension Is Not Reassuring.  Arch Surgery, 146, 7, 865-869

European Society of Cardiology (ESC) (2009) Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of syncope.  European Heart Journal 30, 2631–2671

Freeman R. Wieling W, Axelrod F.B et al (2011) Consensus statement on the definition of orthostatic hypotension, neurally mediated syncope and the postural tachycardia syndrome.  Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical 161: 46–48

Figueroa et al (May 2010) preventing and treating orthostatic hypotension: as easy as A,B,C Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine,. 77 5 298-306

Federowski, A Melander O (2013) Syndromes of orthostatic intolerance: a hidden danger, Journal of Internal Medicine 273, 4,322–335

Brignole M et al  (2000) New classification of haemodynamics of vasovagal syncope: beyond the VASIS classification. Analysis of the pre-syncopal phase of the tilt test without and with nitroglycerin challenge. Vasovagal Syncope International Study. Europace, ;2, 1, 66

Van Orshoven, Narender P et al (2007) Postprandial Hypotension in Clinical Geriatric Patients and Healthy Elderly: Prevalence Related to Patient Selection and Diagnostic Criteria Geriatrics and Aging, 10, 5, 298-304. 

Mathias C J, Low DA, Iodice V, Owens AP, Kirbis M, Grahame R (2012) Postural tachycardia syndrome – current experience and concepts. Nature Reviews Neurology 8:22-34

Kanjwal K, Saeed B, Karabin B,  Kanjwal Y, Grubb B (2010) Comparative clinical profile of postural orthostatic tachycardia patients with and without joint hypermobility syndrome. Indian Pacing and Electrophysiology Journal. 10: 173-178


Medication Overview

Arnold K et al (2015) Hemodynamic profiles and tolerability of modafinil in the treatment of postural tachycardia syndrome: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Journal of clinical pharmacology, vol. 34, no. 6, p. 738-741

Coffin ST et al (2012) Desmopressin acutely decreases tachycardia and improves symptoms in the postural tachycardia syndrome. Heart Rhythm, 9, 9,1484-90

Connor R, Sheikh M, Grubb B (2012) Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome (POTS): Evaluation and Management.  British Journal of Medical Practitioners. 5,4, a540

French A.E, Shepherd C, Horne A (2011) High dose octreotide; a novel therapy for the treatment of drug refractory postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome in patients with joint hypermobility syndrome. Heart 97:A89-A90

Gales B.J, Gales M.A (2007) Pyridostigmine in the treatment of orthostatic intolerance. Ann Pharmacother. 41(2):314-8

Green et al (2013) Effects of Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibition on Postural Tachycardia Syndrome. J Am Heart Assoc,  3;2(5)

Grubb B (2008) Postural tachycardia syndrome.  Circulation 117: 2814-2817

Hoeldtke R.D,  Bryner K.D, Hoeldtke M.E, Hobbs G (2006 Treatment of postural tachycardia syndrome: a comparison of octreotide and midodrine.  Clin Auton Res16(6):390-5

Kanjwal K,Saeed B,Karabin B,Kanjwal Y,Sheikh M,Grubb BP (2012) Erythropoietin in the treatment of postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome. American Journal of Therapeutics, 03 2012, vol./is. 19/2(92-5), 1075-2765;1536-3686

Kanjwal K, Saeed B, Karabin B, Kanjwal Y, Grubb B (2011a) Clinical presentation and management of patients with hyperadrenergic postural orthostatic  tachycardia syndrome. A single centre experience.  Cardiology Journal 18: 1-5

Kanjwal et al (2011b) Pyridostigmine in the Treatment of Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia: A Single-Center Experience.  PACE, 34:750–755

Kanjwal Y, Kosinski D, Grubb B (2003) The postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome: definitions, diagnosis, and management. PACE  26: 1747-1757

Kpaeyeh J et al (2014) Hemodynamic profiles and tolerability of modafinil in the treatment of postural tachycardia syndrome: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial.  J Clin Psychopharmacol. 34(6):738-41

Mathias C J, Low DA, Iodice V, Owens AP, Kirbis M, Grahame R (2011) Postural tachycardia syndrome – current experience and concepts.  Nature Reviews Neurology 8: 22-34

McDonald C, Frith J, Newton JL (2011) Single centre experience of Ivabradine in postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome.  Europace 13: 306-307

Pandian JD, Dalton K, Henderson R. D, McCombe PA ( 2007) Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome: an underrecognized disorder.  Internal Medicine Journal.  37, 529–535

Raj SR, Black BK, Biaggioni I et al (2009) Propranolol decreases tachycardia and improves symptoms in the postural tachycardia syndrome less is more.  Circulation 120: 725-734

Raj S (2013) Postural Tachycardia Syndrome (POTS). Circulation,127:2336-2342

Schroeder C et al (2002) Selective Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibition as a Human Model of Orthostatic, Circulation, 105 :347-353

Sheldon et al (2015)  Heart Rhythm Society Expert Consensus Statement on the Diagnosis and Treatment of Postural Tachycardia Syndrome, Inappropriate Sinus Tachycardia, and Vasovagal Syncope. Heart rhythm: the official journal of the Heart Rhythm Society 12(6).

Thieben M, Sandroni P, Sletten, D et al (2007) Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome: The Mayo clinic experience.  Mayo Clinic Proceedings 82: 308-313


 

SSRI and SNRI

BNF 69 (2015) London: BMJ Publishing and RPS Publishing

Boyer EW, Shannon M (2005) The serotonin syndrome. New England Journal of medicine, 352,1112-1120).

Cipriani A et al (2010) Sertraline versus other antidepressive agents for depression (Review).  Cochrane database of systematic reviews.  Issue 4

Cipriani A et al (2012) Citalopram versus other anti-depressive agents for depression (Review). Cochrane database of systematic reviews.  Issue 7

Connor R,  Sheikh M, Grubb B (2012) Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome (POTS): Evaluation and Management.  British Journal of Medical Practitioners. 5,4, a540

DiGirolamo E,Di Iorio C,Sabatini P,Leonzio L,Barbone C,Barsotti A ( 1999) Effects of paroxetine hydrochloride, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, on refractory vasovagal syncope: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 33, 5, 1227-30

Green et al (2013) Effects of Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibition on Postural Tachycardia Syndrome. J Am Heart Assoc,  3;2(5)

Grubb B. (2008) Postural tachycardia syndrome. Circulation; 117(21): 2814–2817.

Grubb BP,Samoil D,Kosinski D,Wolfe D,Lorton M,Madu E ( 1994) Fluoxetine hydrochloride for the treatment of severe refractory orthostatic hypotension. American Journal of Medicine, 10, 97, 366-368

Grubb B, Karas BJ (1998)The Potential Role of Serotonin in the Pathogenesis of Neurocardiogenic Syncope and Related Autonomic Disturbances.  Journal of Interventional Cardiac Electrophysiology,2,325–332

Lunn M, Hughes R,  Wiffen P (2014) Duloxetine for treating painful neuropathy, chronic pain or fibromyalgia. The Cochrane database of systematic reviews. Issue 1

Moya et al (2009) European Society of Cardiology:  Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of syncope.  European Heart Journal 30, 2631–2671

National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (2007) Antenatal and postnatal mental health: CG45.  London: National Institute for Health and Care Excellence.

Pandian JD, Dalton K, Henderson R. D, McCombe PA (2007) Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome: an underrecognized disorder.  Internal Medicine Journal.  37, 529–535

Price J.S, Waller P.C, Wood S.M, Mackay A.V.P ( 1996) A comparision of the post-marketing safety of four selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors including the investigation of symptoms occurring on withdrawl. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 42, 757-763

Raj S (2013) Postural Tachycardia Syndrome (POTS). Circulation,127:2336-2342

Schroeder C et al (2002) Selective Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibition as a Human Model of Orthostatic, Circulation, 105 :347-353

Tack J, Broekaert D, Fischler B, Van Oudenhove L, Gevers AM, Janssens J (2006) A controlled crossover study of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor citalopram in irritable bowel syndrome, Gut, 55:1095–1103

Van Geffen E.C.G,  Hugtenburg J.G,  Heerdink E.R, van Hulten R.P, Egberts A.C. G (2005) Discontinuation symptoms in users of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in clinical practice: tapering versus abrupt discontinuation.  Eur J Clin Pharmacol, 61: 303–307

 


Compression Tights For PoTS

Clinical Knowledge Summaries (2012) Compression Stockings, National Institute of Clinical Excellence cks.nice.org.uk/compression-stockings#!references
 
Raj S (2013) Postural Tachycardia Syndrome (POTS). Circulation, 127:2336-2342

Santos QDS et al (2003) Efficacy of lower limb compression in the management of vasovagal syncope--randomized, crossover study. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol.  36,4 :451-5

Macrae BA et al (2011)  Compression garments and exercise: garment considerations, physiology and performance. Sports Med, 41,10: 815-43

PoTS Booklet

Abed H, Ball P, Wang L (2012) Diagnosis and management of postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome: A brief review.  Journal of Geriatric Cardiology, 9: 61−67

Bagai K, Song Y, Ling J.F et al ( 2011) Sleep Disturbances and Diminished Quality of Life in Postural Tachycardia Syndrome. Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine. 7, 2, 204-210

Brignole M et al (2000) New classification of haemodynamics of vasovagal syncope: beyond the VASIS classification. Analysis of the pre-syncopal phase of the tilt test without and with nitroglycerin challenge. Vasovaga Syncope International Study. Europace, 2, 1, 66-76

Benarroch EE (2012) Postural Tachycardia Syndrome: A Heterogeneous and Multifactorial Disorder.  Mayo Clinic Proceedings. 87,1214-25

Brady PA, Low PA, Shen WK (2005) Inappropriate sinus tachycardia, Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome, and overlapping syndromes.  PACE 28: 1112-1121

Busmer L (2013) Diagnosis and management of postural tachycardia syndrome. Nursing Standard. 27, 20, 44-48.

Coffin ST; Black BK; Biaggioni I; Paranjape SY; Orozco C; Black PW; Dupont WD;Robertson D; Raj SR (2012) Desmopressin acutely decreases tachycardia and improves symptoms in the postural tachycardia syndrome. Heart Rhythm, 9, 9,1484-90

Connor R,  Sheikh M, Grubb B (2012) Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome (POTS): Evaluation and Management.  British Journal of Medical Practitioners. 5,4, a540

Corbett WL et al (2006) Anaesthetic management of patients with the postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome: a case report. The British Journal of Anaesthesia, 97, 196-199

Electronic Medicines Compendium(2013)Slow Sodium.  Last updated  August 2010 www.medicines.org.uk/emc/medicine/813/SPC/Slow+Sodium/

Falloon K, Arroll B, Elley CR,Fernando I A (2011) The assessment and management of insomnia in primary care. British Medical Journal. 342, d2899.

Figueroa J et al (May 2010) preventing and treating orthostatic hypotension: as easy as A,B,C Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine, 77, 5, 298-306

Freeman R et al (2011) Consensus statement on the definition of orthostatic hypotension, neurally mediated syncope and the postural tachycardia syndrome.  Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical 161: 46–48

Fu Q, VanGundy T.B Shibata S, Auchus R.J, Williams G.H, Levine B.D (2011) Exercise Training Versus Propranolol in the treatment of the Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome.  Hypertension. 58, 167-171

Fu Q, Van Gundy TB , Galbreath MM et al (2010) Cardiac origins of the postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome.  Journal of the American college of Cardiology. 55: 2858-2868

Gazit Y, Nahir AM, Grahame R, Jacob G (2003) Dysautonomia in the joint hypermobility syndrome. Am J Med. 115:33-40.

Grahame R, Hakim A.J (2008) Hypermobility. Current Opinion in Rheumatology, 20:106 – 110

Grubb B, Kanjwal Y, Kosinski D (2006) The postural tachycardia syndrome: A concise guide to diagnosis and management.  Journal Cardiovascular Electrophysiology 17: 108-112

Grubb B (2008) Postural tachycardia syndrome.  Circulation 117: 2814-2817

Hakim A, Grahame R (2003) Joint Hypermobility. Best Practice & Research Clinical Rheumatology, 17, 6, 989-1004

Hoad A, Spickett G, Elliott J, Newton J (2008) Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome is an under-recognized condition in chronic fatigue syndrome. Q J Med.  101, 961-965.

Kanjwal K, Karabin B, Kanjwal Y, Grubb B (2009) Outcomes of pregnancy in patients with postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome.  PACE, 32:1000-1003

Kanjwal K, Saeed B, Karabin B, Kanjwal Y, Grubb B (2011a) Clinical presentation and management of patients with hyperadrenergic postural orthostatic  tachycardia syndrome. A single centre experience.  Cardiology Journal 18: 1-5

Kanjwal K, ShiekhM, Karabin B,et al. (2011b) Neurocardiogenic syncope coexisting with postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome in patients suffering from orthostatic intolerance: a combined form of autonomic dysfunction. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol; 34(5): 549–554.

Kanjwal K, Saeed B, Karabin B, Kanjwal Y, Grubb B (2010) Comparative clinical profile of postural orthostatic tachycardia patients with and without joint hypermobility syndrome. Indian Pacing and Electrophysiology Journal. 10: 173-178

Kavi L, Gammage M.D, Grubb B.P, Karabin B.L (2012) Postural tachycardia syndrome: multiple symptoms, but easily missed. The British Journal of General Practice,  62, 599, 286-7

Kimpinski K, Iodice V, Sandroni P, Low P.A ( 2010) Effect of pregnancy on Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome.  Mayo Clinic Proceedings. 85, 7, 639-644

Li H et al ( 2014) Autoimmune Basis for Postural Tachycardia Syndrome. J Am Heart Assoc. February

Low PA, Sandroni P, Joyner M, Shen W (2009) Postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS).  Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology. 20: 352-358

Newton et al (2012) Autonomic symptoms are common and are associated with overall symptom burden and disease activity in primary Sjogren's syndrome. Ann Rheum, 71,12,1973-9

Moya A, Sutton R, Ammirati F et al (2009) Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of syncope. European Heart Journal 30, 2631–2671

McDonald C, Frith J, Newton JL (2011) Single centre experience of ivabradine in postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome. Europace. 13, 3, 427-430.

Mathias C J, Low DA, Iodice V, Owens AP, Kirbis M, Grahame R (2011) Postural tachycardia syndrome – current experience and concepts.  Nature Reviews Neurology 8: 22-34

Pandian JD, Dalton K, Henderson R. D, McCombe PA ( 2007) Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome: an underrecognized disorder.  Internal Medicine Journal.  37, 529–535

Plash WB, et al (2013) Diagnosing Postural Tachycardia Syndrome: Comparison of Tilt Test versus Standing Hemodynamics. Clinical Science 124, 2:109-14

Raj SR (2006) The postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS): Pathophysiology, Diagnosis & Management.  Indian Pacing and Electrophysiology Journal 6: 84-9

Raj SR, Black BK, Biaggioni I et al (2009) Propranolol decreases tachycardia and improves symptoms in the postural tachycardia syndrome: less is more. Circulation. 120, 9, 725-734.

Raj S (2013) Postural Tachycardia Syndrome (POTS). Circulation,127:2336-2342

Raj V et al (2009) Psychiatric Profile and Attention Deficits in the Postural Tachycardia Syndrome  Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry 80:3 338-344

Schatz et al (1996) Consensus statement on the definition of orthostatic hypotension, pure autonomic failure, and multiple system atrophy Neurology, 46, 1470

Schofield JR et al (2014) Postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS) and other autonomic disorders in antiphospholipid (Hughes) syndrome (APS) Lupus  23, 697–702

Shannon JR, Diedrich A, Biaggioni I, Tank J, Robertson RM, Robertson D, Jordan J (2002): Water drinking as a treatment for orthostatic syndromes. Am J Med,112:355-360.

Shibao C, Arzubiaga C, Jackson Roberts L et al (2005) Hyperadrenergic postural tachycardia syndrome in mast cell activation disorders.  Hypertension  45:385-390

Stewart JM, Medow MS, Glover JL, Montgomery LD (2006) Persistent splanchnic hyperemia during upright tilt in postural tachycardia syndrome. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol  290:665–673

Thieben M, Sandroni P, Sletten, D et al (2007) Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome: The Mayo clinic experience.  Mayo Clinic Proceedings 82: 308-313

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Parents of People with PoTS

Fu Q, VanGundy T.B Shibata S, Auchus R.J, Williams G.H, Levine B.D (2011) Exercise Training Versus Propranolol in the treatment of the Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome.  Hypertension. 58, 167-171

Cimpean D, Drake RE (2011). ‘Treating co-morbid medical conditions and anxiety/depression’. Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences, vol 20, no 2, pp 141–50.


Flyer

Benarroch EE (2012) Postural Tachycardia Syndrome: A Heterogeneous and Multifactorial Disorder.  Mayo Clinic Proceedings. 87,1214-25

Connor R,  Sheikh M, Grubb B (2012) Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome (POTS): Evaluation and Management.  British Journal of Medical Practitioners. 5,4, a540

Freeman R. Wieling W, Axelrod F.B et al (2011) Consensus statement on the definition of orthostatic hypotension, neurally mediated syncope and the postural tachycardia syndrome.  Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical 161: 46–48

Fu Q, VanGundy T.B Shibata S, Auchus R.J, Williams G.H, Levine B.D (2011) Exercise Training Versus Propranolol in the treatment of the Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome.  Hypertension. 58, 167-171

Grubb B. (2008) Postural Tachycardia Syndrome, Circulation, Vol. 117, pp.2814-2817.

Hoad A, Spickett G, Elliott J, Newton J (2008) Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome is an under-recognized condition in chronic fatigue syndrome. Q J Med.  101, 961-965.

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Newton et al (2012) Autonomic symptoms are common and are associated with overall symptom burden and disease activity in primary Sjogren's syndrome. Ann Rheum, 71,12,1973-9

Plash WB, et al (2013) Diagnosing Postural Tachycardia Syndrome: Comparison of Tilt Test versus Standing Hemodynamics. Clinical Science 124, 2:109-14

Raj S (2013) Postural Tachycardia Syndrome (POTS). Circulation,127:2336-2342

Sheldon et al (2015)  Heart Rhythm Society Expert Consensus Statement on the Diagnosis and Treatment of Postural Tachycardia Syndrome, Inappropriate Sinus Tachycardia, and Vasovagal Syncope. Full text

Thieben M, Sandroni P, Sletten, D et al (2007) Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome: The Mayo clinic experience.  Mayo Clinic Proceedings 82: 308-313


Fatigue management

Bagai K, Song Y, Ling J.F et al ( 2011) Sleep Disturbances and Diminished Quality of Life in Postural Tachycardia Syndrome. Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine. 7, 2, 204-210

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Burkin, J (2012) Fatigue and Fatigue Management. Available at: Full Text.pdf

College of Occupational Therapists (2016). The role of occupational therapy (Accessed 22 November 2016). Available here

Creek, J (2009). Occupational Therapy defined as a complex intervention. British Journal of Occupational Therapy. 72, 3, 105-115.

Harrison, S (2007). Fatigue Management for People with Multiple Sclerosis. College of Occupational Therapists. London.

Joint Formulary Committee (2016)  British National Formulary. 72 ed. London: BMJ Group and Pharmaceutical Press

Kavi L, Nuttall M, Low D et al (2016) A profile of patients with postural tachycardia syndrome and their experience of healthcare in the UK. Br J Cardiol, 23,33.

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Krupp, L.B (2003). Fatigue. Elsevier Science. Philadelphia. 

Miglis, M. G, Muppidi, S, Feakins, C, Fong, L, Prieto, T, Jaradeh, S ( 2016) Sleep Disorders in Patients with Postural Tachycardia Syndrome.  Clin Auton Res, 26, 67-73

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Stout, K & Finlayson, M (2011). Fatigue management in chronic illness: The role of occupational therapy. OT Practice. 16,1, 16-19.

Welham, L (1995). Occupational Therapy for Fatigue in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis. British Journal of Occupational Therapy. 58,12, 507-509

 

If you would like to comment on the website or sources of information please email us at info@potsuk.org

updated February 2017