Basingstoke Team Parish

Sources of Evidence

What is PoTS

Abed H, Ball P, Wang L (2012) Diagnosis and management of postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome: A brief review.  Journal of Geriatric Cardiology, 9: 61−67

Bagai K, Song Y, Ling J.F et al ( 2011) Sleep Disturbances and Diminished Quality of Life in Postural Tachycardia Syndrome. Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine. 7, 2, 204-210

Bayles R et al ( 2012) Epigenetic modification of the norepinephrine transporter gene in postural tachycardia syndrome. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. ;32(8):1910-6. 

Benarroch EE (2012) Postural Tachycardia Syndrome: A Heterogeneous and Multifactorial Disorder.  Mayo Clinic Proceedings. 87,1214-25

Brady PA, Low PA, Shen WK (2005) Inappropriate sinus tachycardia, Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome, and overlapping syndromes.  PACE 28: 1112-1121

Brignole M et al (2000) New classification of haemodynamics of vasovagal syncope: beyond the VASIS classification. Analysis of the pre-syncopal phase of the tilt test without and with nitroglycerin challenge. Vasovaga Syncope International Study. Europace, 2, 1, 66-76

Brinth L S (2015 )Orthostatic intolerance and postural tachycardia syndrome as suspected adverse effects of vaccination against human papilloma virus. Vaccine. 21;33(22):2602-5. 

Busmer L (2013) Diagnosis and management of postural tachycardia syndrome. Nursing Standard. 27, 20, 44-48. 

Coffin ST; Black BK; Biaggioni I; Paranjape SY; Orozco C; Black PW; Dupont WD;Robertson D; Raj SR (2012) Desmopressin acutely decreases tachycardia and improves symptoms in the postural tachycardia syndrome. Heart Rhythm, 9, 9,1484-90

Connor R,  Sheikh M, Grubb B (2012) Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome (POTS): Evaluation and Management.  British Journal of Medical Practitioners. 5,4, a540

Corbett WL et al (2006) Anaesthetic management of patients with the postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome: a case report. The British Journal of Anaesthesia, 97, 196-199

Electronic Medicines Compendium(2013)Slow Sodium.  Last updated  August 2010
http://www.medicines.org.uk/emc/medicine/813/SPC/Slow+Sodium/

Falloon K, Arroll B, Elley CR,Fernando I A (2011) The assessment and management of insomnia in primary care. British Medical Journal. 342, d2899.

Fedorowski, A., Li, H., Yu, X., Koelsch, K. A., Harris, V. M., Liles, C., . . . Kem, D. C. (2016). Antiadrenergic autoimmunity in postural tachycardia syndrome. Europace. doi: 10.1093/europace/euw154

Figueroa J et al (May 2010) preventing and treating orthostatic hypotension: as easy as A,B,C Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine, 77, 5, 298-306

Freeman R et al (2011) Consensus statement on the definition of orthostatic hypotension, neurally mediated syncope and the postural tachycardia syndrome.  Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical 161: 46–48

Fu Q, VanGundy T.B Shibata S, Auchus R.J, Williams G.H, Levine B.D (2011) Exercise Training Versus Propranolol in the treatment of the Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome.  Hypertension. 58, 167-171

Fu Q, Van Gundy TB , Galbreath MM et al (2010) Cardiac origins of the postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome.  Journal of the American college of Cardiology. 55: 2858-2868

Gazit Y, Nahir AM, Grahame R, Jacob G (2003) Dysautonomia in the joint hypermobility syndrome. Am J Med. 115:33-40.

Grahame R, Hakim A.J (2008) Hypermobility. Current Opinion in Rheumatology, 20:106 – 110

Grubb B, Kanjwal Y, Kosinski D (2006) The postural tachycardia syndrome: A concise guide to diagnosis and management.  Journal Cardiovascular Electrophysiology 17: 108-112

Grubb B (2008) Postural tachycardia syndrome.  Circulation 117: 2814-2817

Hakim A, Grahame R (2003) Joint Hypermobility. Best Practice & Research Clinical Rheumatology, 17, 6, 989-1004

Hoad A, Spickett G, Elliott J, Newton J (2008) Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome is an under-recognized condition in chronic fatigue syndrome. Q J Med.  101, 961-965.

Kanjwal K, Karabin B, Kanjwal Y, Grubb B (2009) Outcomes of pregnancy in patients with postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome.  PACE, 32:1000-1003

Kanjwal K, Saeed B, Karabin B, Kanjwal Y, Grubb B (2011a) Clinical presentation and management of patients with hyperadrenergic postural orthostatic  tachycardia syndrome. A single centre experience.  Cardiology Journal 18: 1-5

Kanjwal K, ShiekhM, Karabin B,et al. (2011b) Neurocardiogenic syncope coexisting with postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome in patients suffering from orthostatic intolerance: a combined form of autonomic dysfunction. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol; 34(5): 549–554.

Kanjwal K, Saeed B, Karabin B, Kanjwal Y, Grubb B (2010) Comparative clinical profile of postural orthostatic tachycardia patients with and without joint hypermobility syndrome. Indian Pacing and Electrophysiology Journal. 10: 173-178

Kavi L, Gammage M.D, Grubb B.P, Karabin B.L (2012) Postural tachycardia syndrome: multiple symptoms, but easily missed. The British Journal of General Practice,  62, 599, 286-7

Kimpinski K, Iodice V, Sandroni P, Low P.A ( 2010) Effect of pregnancy on Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome.  Mayo Clinic Proceedings. 85, 7, 639-644

Li H et al (2014) Autoimmune Basis for Postural Tachycardia Syndrome. J Am Heart Assoc. February

Low PA, Sandroni P, Joyner M, Shen W (2009) Postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS).  Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology. 20: 352-358

Newton et al (2012) Autonomic symptoms are common and are associated with overall symptom burden and disease activity in primary Sjogren's syndrome. Ann Rheum, 71,12,1973-9

Moya A, Sutton R, Ammirati F et al (2009) Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of syncope. European Heart Journal 30, 2631–2671

McDonald C, Frith J, Newton JL (2011) Single centre experience of ivabradine in postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome. Europace. 13, 3, 427-430.

Mathias C J, Low DA, Iodice V, Owens AP, Kirbis M, Grahame R (2011) Postural tachycardia syndrome – current experience and concepts.  Nature Reviews Neurology 8: 22-34

Pandian JD, Dalton K, Henderson R. D, McCombe PA ( 2007) Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome: an underrecognized disorder.  Internal Medicine Journal.  37, 529–535

Plash WB, et al (2013) Diagnosing Postural Tachycardia Syndrome: Comparison of Tilt Test versus Standing Hemodynamics. Clinical Science 124, 2:109-14

Raj SR (2006) The postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS): Pathophysiology, Diagnosis & Management.  Indian Pacing and Electrophysiology Journal 6: 84-9

Raj SR, Black BK, Biaggioni I et al (2009) Propranolol decreases tachycardia and improves symptoms in the postural tachycardia syndrome: less is more. Circulation. 120, 9, 725-734.

Raj S (2013) Postural Tachycardia Syndrome (POTS). Circulation,127:2336-2342

Raj V et al (2009) Psychiatric Profile and Attention Deficits in the Postural Tachycardia Syndrome  Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry 80:3 338-344

Sandroni et al (1999). , P. A. Postural tachycardia syndrome:clinical features and follow-up study. Mayo Clin.Proc. 74, 1106–1110 

Schatz et al (1996) Consensus statement on the definition of orthostatic hypotension, pure autonomic failure, and multiple system atrophy Neurology, 46, 1470

Schofield JR et al (2014) Postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS) and other autonomic disorders in antiphospholipid (Hughes) syndrome (APS) Lupus  23, 697–702

Seneviratne SL, Maitland A, Afrin L. 2017. Mast cell disorders in Ehlers–Danlos syndrome. Am J Med Genet Part C Semin Med Genet 175C:226–236.

Shannon JR, Diedrich A, Biaggioni I, Tank J, Robertson RM, Robertson D, Jordan J (2002): Water drinking as a treatment for orthostatic syndromes. Am J Med,112:355-360.

Sheldon et al (2015)  Heart Rhythm Society Expert Consensus Statement on the Diagnosis and Treatment of Postural Tachycardia Syndrome, Inappropriate Sinus Tachycardia, and Vasovagal Syncope. Heart rhythm: the official journal of the Heart Rhythm Society 12(6).

Shibao C, Arzubiaga C, Jackson Roberts L et al (2005) Hyperadrenergic postural tachycardia syndrome in mast cell activation disorders.  Hypertension  45:385-390

Stewart JM, Medow MS, Glover JL, Montgomery LD (2006) Persistent splanchnic hyperemia during upright tilt in postural tachycardia syndrome. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol  290:665–673

TINKLE B et al  2017 Hypermobile Ehlers–Danlos Syndrome (a.k.a. Ehlers–Danlos Syndrome Type III and Ehlers–Danlos Syndrome Hypermobility Type):Clinical Description and Natural HistoryMar;175(1):48-69

Thieben M, Sandroni P, Sletten, D et al (2007) Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome: The Mayo clinic experience.  Mayo Clinic Proceedings 82: 308-313

Winker R, Barth A, Bidmon D (2005) Endurance exercise training in orthostatic intolerance: a randomized, controlled trial.  Hypertension  45: 391-398 

Zarate, N et al (2010) Unexplained gastrointestinal symptoms and joint hypermobility: is connective tissue the missing link? Neurogastroenterology and motility ,22,3,252-e78


Living with PoTS

Abed H, Ball P, Wang L (2012) Diagnosis and management of postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome: A brief review. Journal of Geriatric Cardiology, 9: 61−67

Bagai K, Song Y, Ling J.F et al ( 2011) Sleep Disturbances and Diminished Quality of Life in Postural Tachycardia Syndrome. Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine. 7, 2, 204-210

Benarroch EE (2012) Postural Tachycardia Syndrome: A Heterogeneous and Multifactorial Disorder.  Mayo Clinic Proceedings. 87,1214-25

Benrud-Larson et al (2002) Quality of Life in Patients with Postural Tachycardia syndrome.  Mayo Clinic Proceedings 77, pp 531-537

Connor R,  Sheikh M, Grubb B (2012) Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome (POTS): Evaluation and Management.  British Journal of Medical Practitioners. 5,4, a540

Electronic Medicines Compendium(2013) Nytol.  Last updated  Jan 2013.
http://www.medicines.org.uk/emc/medicine/19778/SPC/Nytol+One-A-Night/

Electronic Medicines Compendium(20103)Slow Sodium.  Last updated July 2015
http://www.medicines.org.uk/emc/medicine/813

Figueroa J et al (May 2010) preventing and treating orthostatic hypotension: as easy as A,B,C Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine, 77, 5, 298-306

Fu et al (2010) Cardiac Origins of the Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome.  Journal of the American college of Cardiology, 55, (25), pp 2858- 2868

Fu Q, VanGundy T.B Shibata S, Auchus R.J, Williams G.H, Levine B.D (2011) Exercise Training Versus Propranolol in the treatment of the Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome.  Hypertension. 58, 167-171

Grubb et al (2001) Review: The Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia syndrome: current concepts in pathophysiology Diagnosis and Management.  Journal of Interventional cardiac Electrophysiology, 5, pp 9-16

Kanjwal K, Shiekh M, Karabin B,et al. (2011) Neurocardiogenic syncope coexisting with postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome in patients suffering from orthostatic intolerance: a combined form of autonomic dysfunction. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol 34,5: 549–554. 

Low P.A, Sandroni P, Joyner M, Shen W-K (2009) Postural Tachycardia Syndrome (POTS). Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology, 20, (3), pp 352- 358

Mathias C J, Low DA, Iodice V, Owens AP, Kirbis M, Grahame R (2011) Postural tachycardia syndrome – current experience and concepts.  Nature Reviews Neurology 8: 22-34

Miglis M, Muppidi S, Jaradeh S (2015) Sleep Disorders in Patients with Postural Tachycardia Syndrome,  Neurology (P1. 279)

Moya A, Sutton R, Ammirati F et al (2009) Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of syncope. European Heart Journal 30, 2631–2671

Parsaik A, Allison TG, Singer W, Sletten DM, Joyner MJ, Benarroch EE, Low PA, Sandroni P. (2012) Deconditioning in patients with orthostatic intolerance.    Mayo clinic. Neurology 19

Ramakrishnan K, Scheid DC (2007) Treatment options for insomnia. Am Fam Physician.  15;76(4):517-26.

Raj S (2013) Postural Tachycardia Syndrome (POTS). Circulation,127:2336-2342

Raj SR (2006) The postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS): Pathophysiology, Diagnosis & Management.  Indian Pacing and Electrophysiology Journal 6: 84-9

Shannon JR,Diedrich A, Biaggioni I, Tank J, Robertson RM, Robertson
D, Jordan J (2002): Water drinking as a treatment for orthostatic syndromes. Am J Med,112:355-360.

Sheldon et al (2015)  Heart Rhythm Society Expert Consensus Statement on the Diagnosis and Treatment of Postural Tachycardia Syndrome, Inappropriate Sinus Tachycardia, and Vasovagal Syncope. FULL TEXT

Stewart JM, Medow MS, Glover JL, Montgomery LD (2006) Persistent splanchnic hyperemia during upright tilt in postural tachycardia syndrome. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol  290:665–673

Thieben M, Sandroni P, Sletten D et al (2007) Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome: The Mayo Clinic Experience.  Mayo Clinic Proceedings.  82, 3, 308-313

Winker R et al (2005) Endurance exercise training in orthostatic intolerance: a randomized, controlled trial.  Hypertension, 45, pp 391-398


Pregnancy

Blitshteyn, S., Poya, H., & Bett, G. C. (2012). Pregnancy in postural tachycardia syndrome: clinical course and maternal and fetal outcomes. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med, 25(9), 1631-1634. doi:10.3109/14767058.2011.648671

Bornschein, J., Drozdov, I., & Malfertheiner, P. (2009). Octreotide lar: Safety and tolerability issues. Expert Opin Drug Saf, 8(6), 755-768. 

Djelmis, J., Sostarko, M., Mayer, D., & Ivanisevic, M. (2002). Myasthenia gravis in pregnancy: Report on 69 cases. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol, 104(1), 21-25. 

Drugs C on. The Transfer of Drugs and Other Chemicals Into Human Milk. Pediatrics. 2001 Sep 1;108(3):776–89. 
Easterling, T. R. (2014). Pharmacological management of hypertension in pregnancy. Semin Perinatol, 38(8), 487-495. doi: 10.1053/j.semperi.2014.08.016

EMA -European Medicines Agency http://www.ema.europa.eu/docs/en_GB/document_library/EPAR_-_Product_Information/human/000597/WC500043590.pdf (checked 24/7/17)

Flint, J., Panchal, S., Hurrell, A., van de Venne, M., Gayed, M., Schreiber, K., . . . Audit Working, Group. (2016). Bsr and bhpr guideline on prescribing drugs in pregnancy and breastfeeding-part i: Standard and biologic disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs and corticosteroids. Rheumatology (Oxford), 55(9), 1693-1697. doi: 10.1093/rheumatology/kev404

Glatter, K. A., Tuteja, D., Chiamvimonvat, N., Hamdan, M., & Park, J. K. (2005). Pregnancy in postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol, 28(6), 591-593. doi: 10.1111/j.1540-8159.2005.50026.x
Hartikainen-Sorri, A. L., Heikkinen, J. E., & Koivisto, M. (1987). Pharmacokinetics of clonidine during pregnancy and nursing. Obstet Gynecol, 69(4), 598-600. 

Heinonen OP, Slone D, Shapiro S. Birth defects and drugs in pregnancy. [Internet]. Publishing Sciences Group Inc., Littleton, Massachusetts, U.S.A.; 1977 [cited 2016 Mar 22]. Available from: http://www.cabdirect.org/abstracts/19782703483.html;jsessionid=9DAA186C5060BA5632EDFB43813B8A87

Hviid, A., & Molgaard-Nielsen, D. (2011). Corticosteroid use during pregnancy and risk of orofacial clefts. CMAJ, 183(7), 796-804. doi: 10.1503/cmaj.101063

Kanjwal, K., Karabin, B., Kanjwal, Y., & Grubb, B. P. (2009). Outcomes of pregnancy in patients with preexisting postural tachycardia syndrome. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol, 32(8), 1000-1003. doi: 10.1111/j.1540-8159.2009.02430.x

Kimpinski, K., Iodice, V., Sandroni, P., & Low, P. A. (2010). Effect of pregnancy on postural tachycardia syndrome. Mayo Clin Proc, 85(7), 639-644. doi: 10.4065/mcp.2009.0672

Lide, B., & Haeri, S. (2015). A case report and review of postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome in pregnancy. AJP Rep, 5(1), e33-36. doi: 10.1055/s-0034-1544106 

NICE (2008, modified 2010) Antenatal Care. National Institute of Clinical Excellence Clinical Guidline 62. http://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/CG62  (checked 20/8/17-under review)

NICE (2010). Hypertension in pregnancy: diagnosis and management | Guidance and guidelines | NICE [Internet]. Available from: https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/cg107

Powless, C. A., Harms, R. W., & Watson, W. J. (2010). Postural tachycardia syndrome complicating pregnancy. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med, 23(8), 850-853. doi: 10.3109/14767050903265089

UKTIS 2016 (UK teratogenicity Information Service, March 2016) http://www.medicinesinpregnancy.org/bumps/monographs/USE-OF-BISOPROLOL-IN-PREGNANCY/?print=y

Thieben, M. J., Sandroni, P., Sletten, D. M., Benrud-Larson, L. M., Fealey, R. D., Vernino, S., . . . Low, P. A. (2007). Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome: The mayo clinic experience. Mayo Clin Proc, 82(3), 308-313. doi: 10.4065/82.3.308

Yates LM, Thomas SHL, (2012)  Prescribing medicines in pregnancy, Medicine 40;7 386-390


 

Midodrine

Doyle J.F, Grocott-Mason R, Hardman T.C, Malik O, Dubrey S,W (2012) Midodrine: use and current status in the treatment of hypotension.  British Journal of Cardiology 19:34–7  

Mathias C J, Low DA, Iodice V, Owens AP, Kirbis M, Grahame R (2012) Postural tachycardia syndrome – current experience and concepts.  Nature Reviews Neurology 8: 22-34

NICE (2015) Orthostatic hypotension due to autonomic dysfunction: midodrine.  Evidence Summary,National Institute for Health and Care Excellence.Published Oct 2015 https://www.nice.org.uk/advice/esnm61/chapter/Key-points-from-the-evidence

MRHA summary of product characteristics http://www.mhra.gov.uk/spc-pil/?subsName=MIDODRINE%20HYDROCHLORIDE&pageID=SecondLevel

Ross A.J, Ocon A.J, Medow M.S, Stewart J.M (2014) A double-blind placebo-controlled cross-over study of the vascular effects of midodrine in neuropathic compared with hyperadrenergic postural tachycardia syndrome. Clin Sci (Lond), 126, 4, 289-96


Living with low blood pressure

Tolulope A. et al (2011) Redefining Hypotension in the Elderly. Normotension Is Not Reassuring.  Arch Surgery, 146, 7, 865-869

European Society of Cardiology (ESC) (2009) Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of syncope.  European Heart Journal 30, 2631–2671

Freeman R. Wieling W, Axelrod F.B et al (2011) Consensus statement on the definition of orthostatic hypotension, neurally mediated syncope and the postural tachycardia syndrome.  Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical 161: 46–48

Figueroa et al (May 2010) preventing and treating orthostatic hypotension: as easy as A,B,C Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine,. 77 5 298-306

Federowski, A Melander O (2013) Syndromes of orthostatic intolerance: a hidden danger, Journal of Internal Medicine 273, 4,322–335

Brignole M et al  (2000) New classification of haemodynamics of vasovagal syncope: beyond the VASIS classification. Analysis of the pre-syncopal phase of the tilt test without and with nitroglycerin challenge. Vasovagal Syncope International Study. Europace, ;2, 1, 66

Van Orshoven, Narender P et al (2007) Postprandial Hypotension in Clinical Geriatric Patients and Healthy Elderly: Prevalence Related to Patient Selection and Diagnostic Criteria Geriatrics and Aging, 10, 5, 298-304. 

Mathias C J, Low DA, Iodice V, Owens AP, Kirbis M, Grahame R (2012) Postural tachycardia syndrome – current experience and concepts. Nature Reviews Neurology 8:22-34

Kanjwal K, Saeed B, Karabin B,  Kanjwal Y, Grubb B (2010) Comparative clinical profile of postural orthostatic tachycardia patients with and without joint hypermobility syndrome. Indian Pacing and Electrophysiology Journal. 10: 173-178


Medication Overview

Arnold K et al (2015) Hemodynamic profiles and tolerability of modafinil in the treatment of postural tachycardia syndrome: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Journal of clinical pharmacology, vol. 34, no. 6, p. 738-741

Coffin ST et al (2012) Desmopressin acutely decreases tachycardia and improves symptoms in the postural tachycardia syndrome. Heart Rhythm, 9, 9,1484-90

Connor R, Sheikh M, Grubb B (2012) Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome (POTS): Evaluation and Management.  British Journal of Medical Practitioners. 5,4, a540

French A.E, Shepherd C, Horne A (2011) High dose octreotide; a novel therapy for the treatment of drug refractory postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome in patients with joint hypermobility syndrome. Heart 97:A89-A90

Gales B.J, Gales M.A (2007) Pyridostigmine in the treatment of orthostatic intolerance. Ann Pharmacother. 41(2):314-8

Green et al (2013) Effects of Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibition on Postural Tachycardia Syndrome. J Am Heart Assoc,  3;2(5)

Grubb B (2008) Postural tachycardia syndrome.  Circulation 117: 2814-2817

Hoeldtke R.D,  Bryner K.D, Hoeldtke M.E, Hobbs G (2006 Treatment of postural tachycardia syndrome: a comparison of octreotide and midodrine.  Clin Auton Res16(6):390-5

Kanjwal K,Saeed B,Karabin B,Kanjwal Y,Sheikh M,Grubb BP (2012) Erythropoietin in the treatment of postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome. American Journal of Therapeutics, 03 2012, vol./is. 19/2(92-5), 1075-2765;1536-3686

Kanjwal K, Saeed B, Karabin B, Kanjwal Y, Grubb B (2011a) Clinical presentation and management of patients with hyperadrenergic postural orthostatic  tachycardia syndrome. A single centre experience.  Cardiology Journal 18: 1-5

Kanjwal et al (2011b) Pyridostigmine in the Treatment of Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia: A Single-Center Experience.  PACE, 34:750–755

Kanjwal Y, Kosinski D, Grubb B (2003) The postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome: definitions, diagnosis, and management. PACE  26: 1747-1757

Kpaeyeh J et al (2014) Hemodynamic profiles and tolerability of modafinil in the treatment of postural tachycardia syndrome: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial.  J Clin Psychopharmacol. 34(6):738-41

Mathias C J, Low DA, Iodice V, Owens AP, Kirbis M, Grahame R (2011) Postural tachycardia syndrome – current experience and concepts.  Nature Reviews Neurology 8: 22-34

McDonald C, Frith J, Newton JL (2011) Single centre experience of Ivabradine in postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome.  Europace 13: 306-307

Pandian JD, Dalton K, Henderson R. D, McCombe PA ( 2007) Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome: an underrecognized disorder.  Internal Medicine Journal.  37, 529–535

Raj SR, Black BK, Biaggioni I et al (2009) Propranolol decreases tachycardia and improves symptoms in the postural tachycardia syndrome less is more.  Circulation 120: 725-734

Raj S (2013) Postural Tachycardia Syndrome (POTS). Circulation,127:2336-2342

Schroeder C et al (2002) Selective Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibition as a Human Model of Orthostatic, Circulation, 105 :347-353

Sheldon et al (2015)  Heart Rhythm Society Expert Consensus Statement on the Diagnosis and Treatment of Postural Tachycardia Syndrome, Inappropriate Sinus Tachycardia, and Vasovagal Syncope. Heart rhythm: the official journal of the Heart Rhythm Society 12(6).

Thieben M, Sandroni P, Sletten, D et al (2007) Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome: The Mayo clinic experience.  Mayo Clinic Proceedings 82: 308-313


 

SSRI and SNRI

BNF 69 (2015) London: BMJ Publishing and RPS Publishing

Boyer EW, Shannon M (2005) The serotonin syndrome. New England Journal of medicine, 352,1112-1120).

Cipriani A et al (2010) Sertraline versus other antidepressive agents for depression (Review).  Cochrane database of systematic reviews.  Issue 4

Cipriani A et al (2012) Citalopram versus other anti-depressive agents for depression (Review). Cochrane database of systematic reviews.  Issue 7

Connor R,  Sheikh M, Grubb B (2012) Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome (POTS): Evaluation and Management.  British Journal of Medical Practitioners. 5,4, a540

DiGirolamo E,Di Iorio C,Sabatini P,Leonzio L,Barbone C,Barsotti A ( 1999) Effects of paroxetine hydrochloride, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, on refractory vasovagal syncope: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 33, 5, 1227-30

Green et al (2013) Effects of Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibition on Postural Tachycardia Syndrome. J Am Heart Assoc,  3;2(5)

Grubb B. (2008) Postural tachycardia syndrome. Circulation; 117(21): 2814–2817.

Grubb BP,Samoil D,Kosinski D,Wolfe D,Lorton M,Madu E ( 1994) Fluoxetine hydrochloride for the treatment of severe refractory orthostatic hypotension. American Journal of Medicine, 10, 97, 366-368

Grubb B, Karas BJ (1998)The Potential Role of Serotonin in the Pathogenesis of Neurocardiogenic Syncope and Related Autonomic Disturbances.  Journal of Interventional Cardiac Electrophysiology,2,325–332

Lunn M, Hughes R,  Wiffen P (2014) Duloxetine for treating painful neuropathy, chronic pain or fibromyalgia. The Cochrane database of systematic reviews. Issue 1

Moya et al (2009) European Society of Cardiology:  Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of syncope.  European Heart Journal 30, 2631–2671

National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (2007) Antenatal and postnatal mental health: CG45.  London: National Institute for Health and Care Excellence.

Pandian JD, Dalton K, Henderson R. D, McCombe PA (2007) Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome: an underrecognized disorder.  Internal Medicine Journal.  37, 529–535

Price J.S, Waller P.C, Wood S.M, Mackay A.V.P ( 1996) A comparision of the post-marketing safety of four selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors including the investigation of symptoms occurring on withdrawl. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 42, 757-763

Raj S (2013) Postural Tachycardia Syndrome (POTS). Circulation,127:2336-2342

Schroeder C et al (2002) Selective Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibition as a Human Model of Orthostatic, Circulation, 105 :347-353

Tack J, Broekaert D, Fischler B, Van Oudenhove L, Gevers AM, Janssens J (2006) A controlled crossover study of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor citalopram in irritable bowel syndrome, Gut, 55:1095–1103

Van Geffen E.C.G,  Hugtenburg J.G,  Heerdink E.R, van Hulten R.P, Egberts A.C. G (2005) Discontinuation symptoms in users of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in clinical practice: tapering versus abrupt discontinuation.  Eur J Clin Pharmacol, 61: 303–307

 


Compression Tights For PoTS

Clinical Knowledge Summaries (2012) Compression Stockings, National Institute of Clinical Excellence cks.nice.org.uk/compression-stockings#!references
 
Raj S (2013) Postural Tachycardia Syndrome (POTS). Circulation, 127:2336-2342

Santos QDS et al (2003) Efficacy of lower limb compression in the management of vasovagal syncope--randomized, crossover study. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol.  36,4 :451-5

Macrae BA et al (2011)  Compression garments and exercise: garment considerations, physiology and performance. Sports Med, 41,10: 815-43

PoTS Booklet

Abed H, Ball P, Wang L (2012) Diagnosis and management of postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome: A brief review.  Journal of Geriatric Cardiology, 9: 61−67

Bagai K, Song Y, Ling J.F et al ( 2011) Sleep Disturbances and Diminished Quality of Life in Postural Tachycardia Syndrome. Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine. 7, 2, 204-210

Bayles R et al ( 2012) Epigenetic modification of the norepinephrine transporter gene in postural tachycardia syndrome. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. ;32(8):1910-6. 

Brignole M et al (2000) New classification of haemodynamics of vasovagal syncope: beyond the VASIS classification. Analysis of the pre-syncopal phase of the tilt test without and with nitroglycerin challenge. Vasovaga Syncope International Study. Europace, 2, 1, 66-76

Brinth L S (2015 )Orthostatic intolerance and postural tachycardia syndrome as suspected adverse effects of vaccination against human papilloma virus. Vaccine. 21;33(22):2602-5. 

Benarroch EE (2012) Postural Tachycardia Syndrome: A Heterogeneous and Multifactorial Disorder.  Mayo Clinic Proceedings. 87,1214-25

Brady PA, Low PA, Shen WK (2005) Inappropriate sinus tachycardia, Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome, and overlapping syndromes.  PACE 28: 1112-1121

Busmer L (2013) Diagnosis and management of postural tachycardia syndrome. Nursing Standard. 27, 20, 44-48.

Coffin ST; Black BK; Biaggioni I; Paranjape SY; Orozco C; Black PW; Dupont WD;Robertson D; Raj SR (2012) Desmopressin acutely decreases tachycardia and improves symptoms in the postural tachycardia syndrome. Heart Rhythm, 9, 9,1484-90

Connor R,  Sheikh M, Grubb B (2012) Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome (POTS): Evaluation and Management.  British Journal of Medical Practitioners. 5,4, a540

Corbett WL et al (2006) Anaesthetic management of patients with the postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome: a case report. The British Journal of Anaesthesia, 97, 196-199

Electronic Medicines Compendium(2013) Slow Sodium.  Last updated  August 2010 www.medicines.org.uk/emc/medicine/813/SPC/Slow+Sodium/

Falloon K, Arroll B, Elley CR,Fernando I A (2011) The assessment and management of insomnia in primary care. British Medical Journal. 342, d2899.

Fedorowski, A. et al (2016) Antiadrenergic autoimmunity in postural tachycardia syndrome. Europace. doi: 10.1093/europace/euw154

Figueroa J et al, (2010) preventing and treating orthostatic hypotension: as easy as A,B,C Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine, 77, 5, 298-306

Freeman R et al (2011) Consensus statement on the definition of orthostatic hypotension, neurally mediated syncope and the postural tachycardia syndrome.  Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical 161: 46–48

Fu Q, VanGundy T.B Shibata S, Auchus R.J, Williams G.H, Levine B.D (2011) Exercise Training Versus Propranolol in the treatment of the Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome.  Hypertension. 58, 167-171

Fu Q, Van Gundy TB , Galbreath MM et al (2010) Cardiac origins of the postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome.  Journal of the American college of Cardiology. 55: 2858-2868

Gazit Y, Nahir AM, Grahame R, Jacob G (2003) Dysautonomia in the joint hypermobility syndrome. Am J Med. 115:33-40.

Grahame R, Hakim A.J (2008) Hypermobility. Current Opinion in Rheumatology, 20:106 – 110

Grubb B, Kanjwal Y, Kosinski D (2006) The postural tachycardia syndrome: A concise guide to diagnosis and management.  Journal Cardiovascular Electrophysiology 17: 108-112

Grubb B (2008) Postural tachycardia syndrome.  Circulation 117: 2814-2817

Hakim A, Grahame R (2003) Joint Hypermobility. Best Practice & Research Clinical Rheumatology, 17, 6, 989-1004

Hoad A, Spickett G, Elliott J, Newton J (2008) Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome is an under-recognized condition in chronic fatigue syndrome. Q J Med.  101, 961-965.

Kanjwal K, Karabin B, Kanjwal Y, Grubb B (2009) Outcomes of pregnancy in patients with postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome.  PACE, 32:1000-1003

Kanjwal K, Saeed B, Karabin B, Kanjwal Y, Grubb B (2011a) Clinical presentation and management of patients with hyperadrenergic postural orthostatic  tachycardia syndrome. A single centre experience.  Cardiology Journal 18: 1-5

Kanjwal K, ShiekhM, Karabin B,et al. (2011b) Neurocardiogenic syncope coexisting with postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome in patients suffering from orthostatic intolerance: a combined form of autonomic dysfunction. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol; 34(5): 549–554.

Kanjwal K, Saeed B, Karabin B, Kanjwal Y, Grubb B (2010) Comparative clinical profile of postural orthostatic tachycardia patients with and without joint hypermobility syndrome. Indian Pacing and Electrophysiology Journal. 10: 173-178

Kavi L, Gammage M.D, Grubb B.P, Karabin B.L (2012) Postural tachycardia syndrome: multiple symptoms, but easily missed. The British Journal of General Practice,  62, 599, 286-7

Kimpinski K, Iodice V, Sandroni P, Low P.A ( 2010) Effect of pregnancy on Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome.  Mayo Clinic Proceedings. 85, 7, 639-644

Li H et al (2014) Autoimmune Basis for Postural Tachycardia Syndrome. J Am Heart Assoc.3, 1.

Low PA, Sandroni P, Joyner M, Shen W (2009) Postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS).  Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology. 20: 352-358

Newton et al (2012) Autonomic symptoms are common and are associated with overall symptom burden and disease activity in primary Sjogren's syndrome. Ann Rheum, 71,12,1973-9

Moya A, Sutton R, Ammirati F et al (2009) Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of syncope. European Heart Journal 30, 2631–2671

McDonald C, Frith J, Newton JL (2011) Single centre experience of ivabradine in postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome. Europace. 13, 3, 427-430.

Mathias C J, Low DA, Iodice V, Owens AP, Kirbis M, Grahame R (2011) Postural tachycardia syndrome – current experience and concepts.  Nature Reviews Neurology 8: 22-34

Pandian JD, Dalton K, Henderson R. D, McCombe PA (2007) Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome: an underrecognized disorder.  Internal Medicine Journal.  37, 529–535

Plash WB, et al (2013) Diagnosing Postural Tachycardia Syndrome: Comparison of Tilt Test versus Standing Hemodynamics. Clinical Science 124, 2:109-14

Raj SR (2006) The postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS): Pathophysiology, Diagnosis & Management.  Indian Pacing and Electrophysiology Journal 6: 84-9

Raj SR, Black BK, Biaggioni I et al (2009) Propranolol decreases tachycardia and improves symptoms in the postural tachycardia syndrome: less is more. Circulation. 120, 9, 725-734.

Raj S (2013) Postural Tachycardia Syndrome (POTS). Circulation,127:2336-2342

Raj V et al (2009) Psychiatric Profile and Attention Deficits in the Postural Tachycardia Syndrome  Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry 80:3 338-344

Sandroni et al (1999). , P. A. Postural tachycardia syndrome:clinical features and follow-up study. Mayo Clin.Proc. 74, 1106–1110 

Seneviratne SL, Maitland A, Afrin L. (2017) Mast cell disorders in Ehlers–Danlos syndrome. Am J Med Genet Part C Semin Med Genet 175C:226–236.

Schatz et al (1996) Consensus statement on the definition of orthostatic hypotension, pure autonomic failure, and multiple system atrophy Neurology, 46, 1470

Schofield JR et al (2014) Postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS) and other autonomic disorders in antiphospholipid (Hughes) syndrome (APS) Lupus  23, 697–702

Shannon JR, Diedrich A, Biaggioni I, Tank J, Robertson RM, Robertson D, Jordan J (2002): Water drinking as a treatment for orthostatic syndromes. Am J Med,112:355-360.

Sheldon et al (2015)  Heart Rhythm Society Expert Consensus Statement on the Diagnosis and Treatment of Postural Tachycardia Syndrome, Inappropriate Sinus Tachycardia, and Vasovagal Syncope. Heart rhythm: the official journal of the Heart Rhythm Society 12(6).

Shibao C, Arzubiaga C, Jackson Roberts L et al (2005) Hyperadrenergic postural tachycardia syndrome in mast cell activation disorders.  Hypertension  45:385-390

Stewart JM, Medow MS, Glover JL, Montgomery LD (2006) Persistent splanchnic hyperemia during upright tilt in postural tachycardia syndrome. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol  290:665–673

Thieben M, Sandroni P, Sletten, D et al (2007) Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome: The Mayo clinic experience.  Mayo Clinic Proceedings 82: 308-313

Tinkle, B. et al (2017) Hypermobile Ehlers–Danlos Syndrome (a.k.a. Ehlers–Danlos Syndrome Type III and Ehlers–Danlos Syndrome Hypermobility Type):Clinical Description and Natural HistoryMar;175(1):48-69

Winker R, Barth A, Bidmon D (2005) Endurance exercise training in orthostatic intolerance: a randomized, controlled trial.  Hypertension  45: 391-398

Zarate, N et al (2010) Unexplained gastrointestinal symptoms and joint hypermobility: is connective tissue the missing link? Neurogastroenterology and motility, 22,3,252-e78


Parents of People with PoTS

Fu Q, VanGundy T.B Shibata S, Auchus R.J, Williams G.H, Levine B.D (2011) Exercise Training Versus Propranolol in the treatment of the Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome.  Hypertension. 58, 167-171

Cimpean D, Drake RE (2011). ‘Treating co-morbid medical conditions and anxiety/depression’. Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences, vol 20, no 2, pp 141–50.


Flyer

Benarroch EE (2012) Postural Tachycardia Syndrome: A Heterogeneous and Multifactorial Disorder.  Mayo Clinic Proceedings. 87,1214-25

Connor R,  Sheikh M, Grubb B (2012) Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome (POTS): Evaluation and Management.  British Journal of Medical Practitioners. 5,4, a540

Freeman R. Wieling W, Axelrod F.B et al (2011) Consensus statement on the definition of orthostatic hypotension, neurally mediated syncope and the postural tachycardia syndrome.  Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical 161: 46–48

Fu Q, VanGundy T.B Shibata S, Auchus R.J, Williams G.H, Levine B.D (2011) Exercise Training Versus Propranolol in the treatment of the Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome.  Hypertension. 58, 167-171

Grubb B. (2008) Postural Tachycardia Syndrome, Circulation, Vol. 117, pp.2814-2817.

Hoad A, Spickett G, Elliott J, Newton J (2008) Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome is an under-recognized condition in chronic fatigue syndrome. Q J Med.  101, 961-965.

Low PA, Sandroni P, Joyner M, Shen W (2009) Postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS).  Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology. 20: 352-358

Mathias C J, Low DA, Iodice V, Owens AP, Kirbis M, Grahame R (2011) Postural tachycardia syndrome – current experience and concepts.  Nature Reviews Neurology 8: 22-34

Newton et al (2012) Autonomic symptoms are common and are associated with overall symptom burden and disease activity in primary Sjogren's syndrome. Ann Rheum, 71,12,1973-9

Plash WB, et al (2013) Diagnosing Postural Tachycardia Syndrome: Comparison of Tilt Test versus Standing Hemodynamics. Clinical Science 124, 2:109-14

Raj S (2013) Postural Tachycardia Syndrome (POTS). Circulation,127:2336-2342

Sheldon et al (2015)  Heart Rhythm Society Expert Consensus Statement on the Diagnosis and Treatment of Postural Tachycardia Syndrome, Inappropriate Sinus Tachycardia, and Vasovagal Syncope. Full text

Thieben M, Sandroni P, Sletten, D et al (2007) Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome: The Mayo clinic experience.  Mayo Clinic Proceedings 82: 308-313


Fatigue management

Bagai K, Song Y, Ling J.F et al ( 2011) Sleep Disturbances and Diminished Quality of Life in Postural Tachycardia Syndrome. Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine. 7, 2, 204-210

Branas, P., Jordan, R., Fry-Smith, A., Burls, A & Hyde, C (2000). Treatments for fatigue in multiple sclerosis: A rapid and systematic review. Health Technology Assessment, 4,27, 1-61

Burkin, J (2012) Fatigue and Fatigue Management. Available at: Full Text.pdf

College of Occupational Therapists (2016). The role of occupational therapy (Accessed 22 November 2016). Available here

Creek, J (2009). Occupational Therapy defined as a complex intervention. British Journal of Occupational Therapy. 72, 3, 105-115.

Harrison, S (2007). Fatigue Management for People with Multiple Sclerosis. College of Occupational Therapists. London.

Joint Formulary Committee (2016)  British National Formulary. 72 ed. London: BMJ Group and Pharmaceutical Press

Kavi L, Nuttall M, Low D et al (2016) A profile of patients with postural tachycardia syndrome and their experience of healthcare in the UK. Br J Cardiol, 23,33.

Kielhofner, G (2009). Conceptual Foundations of Occupational Therapy Practice. (4th ed.). F.A Davis Company. Philadelphia.

Krupp, L.B (2003). Fatigue. Elsevier Science. Philadelphia. 

Miglis, M. G, Muppidi, S, Feakins, C, Fong, L, Prieto, T, Jaradeh, S ( 2016) Sleep Disorders in Patients with Postural Tachycardia Syndrome.  Clin Auton Res, 26, 67-73

Mathiowetz, V.G., Finlayson, M.L., Matuska, K.M., Chen, H.Y & Luo, P (2005) Randomized controlled trial of an energy conservation course for persons with multiple sclerosis. Multiple Sclerosis, 11, .592-601

NICE (2007). Chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (or encephalopathy): diagnosis and management.  (Accessed 11 November 2016) Available here

Packer, T.L., Brink, N & Sauriol, A (1995). Managing fatigue: A six-week course for energy conservation. Therapy Skill Builders. Tuscan.

Sandqvist, G., Åkesson, A & Eklund, M (2005) Daily occupations and well-being in women with limited cutaneous systemic sclerosis. American Journal of Occupational Therapy. 59, 390-397.

Stout, K & Finlayson, M (2011). Fatigue management in chronic illness: The role of occupational therapy. OT Practice. 16,1, 16-19.

Welham, L (1995). Occupational Therapy for Fatigue in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis. British Journal of Occupational Therapy. 58,12, 507-509


Mast Cell Activation Syndrome

Afrin, L. (2013) Presentation, Diagnosis, and Management of Mast Cell Activation Syndrome, in Murray, D.B. (ed.) Mast cells: Phenotypic features, biological functions & role in immunity. United States: Nova Science Publishers, pp. 155–232.

Afrin L B, Self S,  Menk J, Lazarchick J (2016). Characterization of Mast Cell Activation Syndrome.  Blood, 128 (22) 3683

Cardet, J. C., Castells, M. C., & Hamilton, M. J. (2013). Immunology and clinical manifestations of non-clonal mast cell activation syndrome. Curr Allergy Asthma Rep, 13(1), 10-18. doi: 10.1007/s11882-012-0326-8

Cheung I, Vadas P (2014). A new disease cluster: Mast cell activation syndrome, postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome, and ehlers-danlos. J ALLERGY CLIN IMMUNOL, 135(2). 

Molderings, G. J., Brettner, S., Homann, J, & Afrin, L. (2011). Mast cell activation disease: A concise guide for diagnstic workup and therapeutic options. Jurnal of Hematology and Oncology, 4(10). 

Molderings G et al (2016) Pharmacological treatment options for mast cell activation disease Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 2016; 389: 671–694.

Picard, M., Giavina-Bianchi, P., Mezzano, V., & Castells, M. (2013). Expanding spectrum of mast cell activation disorders: Monoclonal and idiopathic mast cell activation syndromes. Clin Ther, 35(5), 548-562. doi: 10.1016/j.clinthera.2013.04.001

Raj, S. R. (2013). Postural tachycardia syndrome (pots). Circulation, 127(23), 2336-2342. doi: 0.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.112.144501

Seneviratne, S. L., Maitland, A., & Afrin, L. (2017). Mast cell disorders in ehlers-danlos syndrome. Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet, 175(1), 226-236. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.c.31555

Tinkle, B., Castori, M., Berglund, B., Cohen, H., Grahame, R., Kazkaz, H., & Levy, H. (2017). Hypermobile ehlers-danlos syndrome (a.K.A. Ehlers-danlos syndrome type iii and ehlers-danlos syndrome hypermobility type): Clinical description and natural history. Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.c.31538

Urb, M., & Sheppard, D. C. (2012). The role of mast cells in the defence against pathogens. PLoS Pathog, 8(4), e1002619. doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1002619

Valent, P., Akin, C., Arock, M., Brockow, K., Butterfield, J. H., Carter, M. C., . . . Metcalfe, D. D. (2012). Definitions, criteria and global classification of mast cell disorders with special reference to mast cell activation syndromes: A consensus proposal. Int Arch Allergy Immunol, 157(3), 215-225. doi: 10.1159/000328760


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updated December 2017